An authentic Sassanid seal pendant from the fourth century; a carneol engraved with the head of a warrior in profile. The Sasanian Empire encompassed Iran, Iraq, Armenia, Turkey, Jordan, Israel, Lebanon, Syria, Georgia, Azerbaijan, Turkmenistan, Tajikistan, Uzbekistan, Qatar, Bahrain, Yemen, Oman, India, Kazakhstan, the United Arabian Emirates, Saudi-Arabia, Pakistan, parts of Russia, Egypt and Kirgizstan during the 3rd to the 7th centuries AD, and the Sasanian time remains as one of the historically most important epochs in Iran, with far-reaching influence. Its aristocratic culture was unique, forming the basis for Muslim architecture, poetry and other artistic endeavors.